Research Paradigm of Pantal River, Dagupan City Ep 3

Research Paradigm of Pantal River

Physicochemical characteristics of water in Pantal river according to the standards of the classification. pHTemperatureBiological Oxygen DemandDissolved oxygenSalinity TurbidityHardnessSuspended solidsChemicals present (Phosphate, Ammonia, Nitrite)
Research Paradigm
Research Paradigm pantal river fig 1
Water samples from Pantal River: Station 1 (Behind NBI office)Station 2 (Behind Guadis Elementary school)Station 3 (Behind Dagupan Electric Corporation)Station 4 (Behind the Air Solution Emission testing centre)Station 5 (Behind LNU High school)   Control: Standard values of physicochemical parameters of the river water.    
Research Paradigm

Independent variables                                   Dependent Variables

ClimateDensity of population around the river

Intervening Variables      

Intervening Variables   pantal river

Figure 1 of Research Paradigm

            Figure 1 shows the relationship between the independent and dependent variables and the intervening variable. Sampling site were indicated as the independent variable, the selection of site was identified by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) for the researchers, the sites were selected due to the following reasons, first that portion denote the mouth of the river, therefore, its physical and chemical contents are not affected by the surrounding environment. Second, it is the most accessible part of the river which best suites the sampling of water (BFAR, Bonuan) and lastly, upon visual inspection that part of river is surrounded with business establishments. 5 litrewater samples were collected from the river was subjected for physicochemicalanalysis which is now the dependent variable of this study. Climate and the density of the people thriving around the area are the intervening variable of the study.

Climate is one among the intervening variable since the Climate has effects on the physicochemical parameters. An example of which is the amount of sulphur present during the dry and the wet season. In the study of Raji (2015) discussed that the amount of Sulphur present in the water during dry season has a higher concentration compared to the sulphur concentration in water during wet season. Another intervening variable identified in the study is the density of people around the river.Alagoa (2012) in her study emphasized that the health of the river in terms of its pollution density is dependent on the input of the river dependent community or those people who lives near the riverbanks, it is assumed that the higher density of people the higher the pollution density.

Statement of the Problem

The study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of water in Pantal River in Dagupan City.

            It specifically sought to answer to the following questions:

1. What are the different physicochemical characteristics of the water in Pantal River in the five stations in terms of the following?

            a) pH

            b) Temperature

            c) Hardness of the water

            d) Total Suspended Solids

            e) Turbidity

            f) Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

            g) Dissolved Oxygen

            h) Chemical in Water (Nitrite, Phosphate, Ammonia)?

2. What is the significant difference between physicochemical characteristics of the water of Pantalriver in the following stations:

            a. Station 1 (Behind NBI office)

            b. Station 2 (Behind Elementary school)

            c. Station 3 (Behind Dagupan Electric Cooperation)

            d. Station 4 (Behind the Air Solution Emission testing center)

            e. Station 5 (Behind LNU High school)?

Hypothesis of the study

HO: There is no significant difference between physicochemical characteristics of the water of Pantal River within the five stations at 0.05 level of significance.

HA: There is a significant difference between physicochemical characteristics of the water of Pantal River in the five stations at 0.05 level of significance.

Significance of Study

            Quality of water is vital in maintaining the ecosystem as well as maintaining the health of those who live near these water resources. The data gathered from this study is beneficial to the following:

            To the Local Government of Dagupan (LGU): the data gathered from this study can serve as a basis on implementing rules and regulation in the usage of the river as an aquaculture area and conduct other source of livelihood program that has less impact on the rivers health.

            To the Department of Natural Resources (DENR) and Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) the result of this study will help them in analyzing the condition of the river as well as imposing rules and regulations together with the LGU. Furthermore, the data can help them in their monitoring the quality of the water.

            To the River dependent community: the result of this study will give them idea and help them obtain knowledge and create awareness in the current status of the river.

To the future researchers: the data obtained from this study can serve as a springboard to other research endeavors related to water pollution.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study was conducted to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of water of Pantal River,Dagupan City. This study also verified if there is a significant difference of the different Physicochemical characteristics present in the five stations where water was collected namely Station I at the back of NBI office, Station II at the Back of Guadis Elementary School, Station III at the back of DECORP, Station IV at the Back of Air Solution Emission Testing Center, and Station V at the LNU General Highschool respectively.

The water samples collected was analyzed in the Limnology Laboratory of BFAR BonuanBinloc. Parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen and different chemicals like Nitrite, Phosphate and Ammonia were determined and is the only scope of study. Water samples were collected and was directly submitted to the Limnology Department of BFAR. The water samples were also collected during the dry season. Water samples were collected on the third week of January 2018.

This research did not go further in identifying the minerals and substrate analysis of the Pantal River as the study would like to focus on the water alone, furthermore, there were only five stations from where water samples were collected since Pantal river is a lotic ecosystem therefore it is assumed that whatever parameters is present in one station will be the same throughout the stretch of the river.

Definitions and terms

            The following terms were defined conceptually in pursuit of the study.

Ammonia – Ammonia is a compound of hydrogen and nitrogen. It is also called as Azane. It is present in the feces of aquatic organisms.

BOD – Biological Oxygen Demand, It is the amount of oxygen needed by the organisms in the water.

Dissolved Oxygen –It is the amount of gaseous oxygen dissolved in the water.

Lotic Ecosystem – Lotic ecosystem refers to the type of river where the water are continuously flowing.

Nitrite –It is a symmetric anion of nitrogen

Parameters – This refers to the characteristics of the water that are studied.

pH – : pH is one of the most common analyzes water testing and  is the standard measure of how acidic or alkaline a solution is.

Phosphate –Salt forming anion of Phosphoric acid

Physicochemical Property – Physical and chemical properties

Pollutants – Pollutants otherwise called as contaminants are physical, chemical or biological substances that affects the natural condition of the environment.

Pollution – Any adverse or undesirable change of the natural environment due to pollutants.

River – A river is a large stream of water flowing.

Salinity – Salt content in the water.

Temperature – Degree of hotness and coldness

Total Hardness –Amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium determines the hardness of the water.

Total Suspended solids – It included all contaminants

Turbidity –It is the key to test the clarity of the water thus water quality

Water quality assessment

It means the overall process of evaluation of the physical, chemical and biological nature of water in relation to natural quality, human effects and intended uses, particularly uses which may affect human health and the health of the aquatic system itself. This is the aim of the research.


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