Children May Carry Coronavirus at High Levels, Study Finds

It has been a comforting refrain in the national conversation about reopening schools: Young children are mostly spared by the coronavirus and don’t seem to spread it to others, at least not very often.

But on Thursday, a study introduced an unwelcome wrinkle into this smooth narrative.

Infected children have at least as much of the coronavirus in their noses and throats as infected adults, according to the research. Indeed, children younger than age 5 may host up to 100 times as much of the virus in the upper respiratory tract as adults, the authors found.

That measurement does not necessarily prove children are passing the virus to others. Still, the findings should influence the debate over reopening schools, several experts said.

“The school situation is so complicated — there are many nuances beyond just the scientific one,” said Dr. Taylor Heald-Sargent, a pediatric infectious diseases expert at the Ann

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Gut Microbes Might Keep Malnourished Children From Growing

Still, that may be a risk worth taking for children with stunting who are not helped by diet alone, Dr. Ahmed said.

To identify this population, the researchers recruited more than 500 children from an urban district in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from 2016 to 2018; all were around 18 months old and at high risk of stunting. For three months, each child was given eggs, milk, vitamins and minerals, as well as antiparasitic medications to purge unwanted infections from their gut.

Most of the children in the study gained weight and grew, but just over one-fifth of them stayed obstinately small. Most of their small intestines showed signs of inflammation, the researchers found, a possible indicator of E.E.D.

An analysis of their gut contents also revealed that many of the children harbored several of the same types of bacteria in their small intestines. None of the microbial members of this “core

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Black Children Are More Likely to Die After Surgery Than White Peers, Study Shows

Black children are more than three times as likely to die within a month of surgery as white children, according to a study published in the journal Pediatrics on Monday.

Disparities in surgical outcomes between Black and white patients have been well established, with researchers attributing some of the difference to higher rates of chronic conditions among Black people. But this study, which looked at data on 172,549 children, highlights the racial disparities in health outcomes even when comparing healthy children.

Researchers found that Black children were 3.4 times as likely to die within a month after surgery and were 1.2 times as likely to develop postoperative complications. The authors performed a retrospective study based on data on children who underwent surgery from 2012 through 2017.

Olubukola Nafiu, the lead author of the study and a pediatric anesthesiologist at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, said the authors were

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Older Children Spread the Coronavirus Just as Much as Adults, New Study Finds

These older children are frequently as big as adults, and yet may have some of the same unhygienic habits as young children do. They may also have been more likely than the younger children to socialize with their peers within the high-rise complexes in South Korea.

“We can speculate all day about this, but we just don’t know,” Dr. Osterholm said. “The bottom line message is: There’s going to be transmission.”

He and other experts said schools will need to prepare for infections to pop up. Apart from implementing physical distancing, hand hygiene and masks, schools should also decide when and how to test students and staff — including, for example, bus drivers — when and how long to require people to quarantine, and when to decide to close and reopen schools.

But they face a monumental challenge because the evidence on transmission within schools has been far from conclusive

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